Addison’s disease is a disorder that occurs when your body does not produce sufficient levels of cortisol and often aldosterone from your adrenal glands. Addison’s disease, if left untreated, can be life threatening. This improper creation of hormones is caused by damage to the adrenal glands located just above the kidneys. This can occur when the cortex is damaged and is unable to produce hormones in adequate quantities (primary adrenal insufficiency) or when the pituitary gland is diseased (secondary adrenal insufficiency). The pituitary gland creates a adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) which stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce its hormones. When the pituitary gland is diseased the adrenal glands are not signaled to produce enough hormones even though they are not directly damaged.
Symptoms include extreme fatigue, weight loss, hyperpigmentation, low blood pressure, salt cravings, nausea, diarrhea or vomiting, abdominal pain, muscle or joint pain, irritability, depression, and body har loss or sexual dysfunction in women.
These symptoms, when they appear suddenly, are signs of Addisonian crisis or acute adrenal failure. This can be provoked by physical stress such as injury, infection, or illness.
Addison’s Disease. Mayo Clinic, https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/addisons-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20350293.
Antiphospholipid Syndrome occurs when your immune system mistakenly attacks some of the normal proteins in your blood. Antiphospholipid syndrome can cause blood clots to form within your arteries or veins. There’s no cure for Antiphospholipid Syndrome, but medications can be effective in reducing your risk of blood clots.
Chronic Kidney Disease (Chronic Renal Failure)
Chronic Kidney disease describes the gradual loss of kidney function. The kidneys filter wastes and excess fluids from the blood, which are then excreted in one’s urine. When chronic kidney disease reaches an advanced stage, dangerous levels of fluid, electrolytes and wastes can build up in the body. In the early stages of chronic kidney disease, one may have few signs or symptoms. Chronic kidney disease may not become apparent until kidney function is significantly impaired. Treatment for chronic kidney disease focuses on slowing the progression of the kidney damage, usually by controlling the underlying cause. Chronic kidney disease can progress to end-stage kidney failure, which is fatal without artificial filtering (dialysis) or a kidney transplant. Signs and symptoms of chronic kidney disease develop over time if kidney damage progresses slowly.
Symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, fatigue, sleep problems, changes in how much you urinate, decreased mental sharpness, muscle twitches and cramps, swelling of feet and ankles, persistent itching, etc.
Chronic Kidney Disease. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chronic-kidney-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20354521
Grave’s disease is an autoimmune disease that leads to a generalized overactivity of the entire thyroid glad (hyperthyroidism). Grave’s disease is caused by a malfunction in the body’s disease-fighting immune system, although the exact reason why this happens is still unknown.
Symptoms of Grave’s disease include: anxiety and irritability, a fine tremor in your hands or dingers, heat sensitivity and an increase in perspiration, weight loss, enlargement of your thyroid gland, change in menstrual cycles, erectile dysfunction, bulging eyes, fatigue, thick, red skin, and a rapid or irregular heartbeat.
Graves’ Disease, Mayo Clinic (Mar. 6, 2018), https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/graves-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20356240
Hereditary Hemochromatosis (Iron Overload)
Hereditary Hemochromatosis is an inherited disorder of abnormal iron metabolism. Individuals with hereditary hemochromatosis absorb too much dietary iron. Once absorbed, the body does not have an efficient way of excreting iron excesses. Over time, these excesses build to a condition of iron overload, which is toxic to cells. Glands and organs, including the liver, heart, pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, synovium and bone marrow burdened with excess iron cannot function properly. Symptoms develop and disease progresses. This iron-mediated disease process has been implicated in multiple metabolic disorders, the worsening of many disease conditions, and premature death and disability.
Male hypogonadism is a condition in which the body doesn’t produce enough testosterone — the hormone that plays a key role in masculine growth and development during puberty — or has an impaired ability to produce sperm or both. Hypogonadism can begin during fetal development, before puberty, or during adulthood. Symptoms are dependent on when the condition develops.
Hypoparathyroidism is an endocrine disorder in which the parathyroid glands in the neck do not produce enough parathyroid hormone (PTH). The parathyroid gland helps control calcium use and removal by the body. They do this by producing parathyroid hormone which helps control calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D levels within the blood and bone. The most common cause of hypoparathyroidism is injury to the parathyroid glands during head and neck surgery. Symptoms are many and include abdominal pain, brittle nails, cataracts, dry hair, dry and scaly skin, muscle cramps, muscle spasms, pain in the face, legs, and feet, seizures, tingling lips, fingers, and toes, decreased consciousness, hand or foot spasms, and painful menstruation.
Hypoparathyroidism, Mayo Clinic (Mar. 9, 2018), https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hypoparathyroidism/symptoms-causes/syc-20355375
Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the body lacks sufficient thyroid hormone. Since the main purpose of thyroid hormone is to “run the body’s metabolism,” it is understandable that people with this condition will have symptoms associated with a slow metabolism. This can be caused by a previous inflammation of the thyroid gland, or inflammation due to one’s own immune system.
Symptoms include fatigue, weakness, weight gain, hair loss, cold intolerance, muscle cramps, constipation, depression, memory loss, decreased libido, etc.
Norman, James, MD, FACS, FACE. Hypothyroidism: Overview, Causes, and Symptoms. Endocrine Web. https://www.endocrineweb.com/conditions/thyroid/hypothyroidism-too-little-thyroid-hormone
Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited disorder in which clusters of cysts develop primarily within your kidneys, causing your kidneys to enlarge and lose function over time. Cysts are noncancerous round sacs containing fluid. The cysts vary in size, and they can grow very large. Having many cysts or large cysts can damage your kidneys. Polycystic kidney disease also can cause cysts to develop in your liver and elsewhere in your body. The disease can cause serious complications, including high blood pressure and kidney failure.
PKD varies greatly in its severity, and some complications are preventable. Lifestyle changes and treatments might help reduce damage to your kidneys from complications.
Symptoms include high blood pressure, back or side pain, headache, a feeling of fullness in your abdomen, increased abdomen size, blood in urine, kidney stones or failure, urinary tract or kidney infections
Polycystic Kidney Disease. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/polycystic-kidney-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20352820
Type 1 Diabetes
Insulin Dependent Diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin, a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy. Various factors may contribute to type 1diabetes, including genetics and exposure to certain viruses. Although type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it also can begin in adults.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar (glucose), your body’s main source of fuel. With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin – a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into your cells – or doesn’t produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level. Untreated, type 2 diabetes can be life-threatening.
Type 2 diabetes symptoms may develop slowly. In fact, you can have type 2 diabetes for years and not know it. Look for: increased thirst and frequent urination; increased hunger; weight loss; fatigue; blurred vision; slow-healing sores or frequent infections; and areas of darkened skin. Although long-term complications of diabetes develop gradually, they can eventually be disabling or even life-threatening. Some of the potential complications of diabetes include: heart and blood vessel disease; nerve damage; kidney damage; eye damage; foot damage; skin and mouth conditions; osteoporosis; Alzheimer’s disease; and hearing problems.
Type 2 Diabetes, Mayo Clinic (Jan. 3, 2018), https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-2-diabetes/symptoms-causes/syc-20351193
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